Facts about Siberia

Are you planning your Russian holidays? Ever thought about traveling to Siberia? Get some facts about Siberia here!

The settlement of Siberia started in 1590. Siberia is a land of mysteries, paradoxes, scary stories and crystal clear divine nature. What is Siberia? Where is Siberia?

23 things you need to know about Siberia

And more fun facts about Russia.


What to see in Russia - Siberia

Siberia. Photo by Dmitry Nikonov, National geography winner

Why Siberia is called Siberia?

What is the meaning of the word “Siberia”? Some scholars derive the word “Siberia” from the Mongolian Shaver (swamp), others associate the word with the name of “Sabirs” – the people who once inhabited the steppe of Western Siberia. The spreading of the name for the entire territory of Siberia, was due to the Russian advance in the late 16th century.

How big is Siberia?

The area of Siberia is 12.6 million square kilometers, 73.6% of all territory of Russia. What is it like? Imagine the area of 25 Frances, for example.

Map of Russia

Where is Siberia. Photo alfinnextlevel.wordpress.com

When was Siberia founded?

If you read somewhere that 14 March 1583 Ermak conquered Siberia in 1 day, do not be surprised. It’s true. Siberia is the second name of the city Isker, the capital of the Siberian Khanate.

Lake Baikal in Siberia

Among all top places to visit in Russia, Lake Baikal is surely in Top 10. The area of Lake Baikal in Siberia is 31.7 square kilometers, which is almost equal to the area of the Belgium. It is the deepest freshwater lake in the world. The water in the lake is very clear. About 20% of the world’s fresh water (excluding glaciers) is the water of Lake Baikal. More than 2000 earthquakes occur around Baikal annually.

Lena River in Siberia

The Lena River, which stands on the banks of the city of Yakutsk is the fourth in the world in length and the world’s second largest delta.

Tunguska meteorite

Devices all around the world recorded the phenomenon, but… At the site of the Tunguska meteorite there is no crater. The meteorite itself was never found…

Biggest swamp in the world

Siberia is home to the largest swamp in the world – Vasyugan swamp. 20% wider than the whole of Switzerland. There are more than 800 lakes within the bounds of Vasyugan swamp. This swamp contains the world’s largest deposits of peat.

Nature in Russia - Siberia

Vasyugan lake, Siberia. Photo greenologia.ru

Diamond Land

Yakutia is a land of diamonds. It produces around a quarter of all diamonds in the world, and the purity of the Yakut diamonds is valued much higher than most others.

On December 23, 1980 in the ores of ‘Mir’ pipe was found the largest diamond in Russia. It weighs 342.5 carats (1 carat equals 0.2 grams). Transparent color, with a lemon-yellow tinge.

The most expensive diamond brooch “Bouquet” is located in the Diamond Fund in Yakutia. Decorated with 47 diamonds and pearls, brooch weights 35.32 g  and is valued at about 7 million. rubles.

Always winter in Russia? 

Permafrost occupies more than a quarter of the total land area of the planet Earth.

The territory of Russia is 65% occupied by permafrost, mostly in the areas of Eastern Siberia and Trans-Baikal. The greatest depth of the frost was recorded in Yakutia, on the river Viluy – 1370 meters.

Gradually, the permafrost has moved south and covered the whole territory of Yakutia. Geological data show that the age of permafrost in Central Yakutia is 1 million years. You can literally touch the permafrost in a unique complex of “The Kingdom of Permafrost”.

Population of Siberia

Siberian population is about 20 million people. Ethnically, the bulk of the population are Russians, but this area is also home to many other ethnic groups and nationalities, such as the Buryats, Dolgan, Nenets, Komi, Khakassia, Chukchi, Evenks, Yakuts, and others.

The biggest cities in Siberia

The largest cities of Siberia are Novosibirsk, Omsk, Krasnoyarsk. Biggest cities: Tyumen, Barnaul, Irkutsk, Novokuznetsk, Tomsk, Kemerovo, Ulan-Ude.

Lakes and rivers of Siberia

All Siberian rivers belong to the basin of the Arctic Ocean. The largest rivers of Siberia are  the Angara, Yenisei, Ob, Irtysh, Lena, Amur. The largest lakes are Lake Baikal, Taimyr and Uvs Nuur.

Lena and Yenisey are among the ten largest rivers in the world. Lena has the of length of 4.5 thousand km

Pristine nature of Russia

Khudozhnikov lake, Siberia. Photo fanat1k.ru

Lena Pillars

Steep, steep cliffs stretch along the right bank of the Lena River for more than 40 km. Nominated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The outlines of the rocks portray the medieval castles, churches, figures of people, animals, and the legendary fairy-tale characters.


Yakutia is the birthplace of elephants. The first known to the world scientific community skeleton of a mammoth was found in 1799 in Yakutia, in the delta of the Lena River.

In April 2006, the National Natural Park “Lena Pillars” got 30 bisons as the gift from the Government of Canada.

Yakut horse

Unique Yakut horses, which can easily withstand 50C frost and get their own food from under the snow, are believed to be same age as mammoths.
Meat and fat of a young Yakut horse has a high nutritional and medicinal properties. The fat of Yakut horses contains the highest amount of unsaturated fatty acids (59%), as well as a large number (up 24.3%) of the famous alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3).

Siberia Russia - ethnic costumes

Yakut horses. Photo goodnewsanimal.ru

Yakut dog

Yakut Laika is the oldest domestic dog in the world.
Yakut Laika was a trusted friend and a great help to a prehistoric man-hunter 25-35 thousand years ago.
Other researchers believe that Siberian Laika is the result of the domestication of the wolf.

Vampire Butterly

In Siberia was found the rare vampire-butterfly. The males survive with blood only.

Oldest bracelet

Siberian archeologists have found the world’s oldest bracelet. According to the scientists from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, the bracelet is 40 thousand years old. The bracelet is made of polished stone – micaceous mineral, says Siberian Times.

Sources: stranamam.ru, planetyakutia.com

Siberian Snow

The largest snowflakes in history were the size of 200-305 mm in diameter. They fell in 1971 in Bratsk.

Northern lights

From seven to eight months of the year the Yakut land is clad in snow, ice and frost. The winter here is accompanied by one of the most vibrant and colorful phenomena of northern nature – the northern lights.

Pole of Cold

The area with the lowest air temperatures on the earth’s surface. In Tomtor village the temperature reaches -71,2 ° C.


Chyskhaan is the Lord of the Frost. According to Yakut legend, Frost Bull creates cold with his breath. Every year Russian Ded Moroz (Santa Claus) begins the pre-Christmas trip around the country with visiting Chyskhaan.


It was hunting for reindeer that allowed primitive man to settle in the tundra zone of Russia and sneak across the Bering bridge into America. Indigenous peoples of Yakutia are still traditionally engaged in reindeer pastoralism.

Siberian winter in Russia

Siberia in winter. Photo Etnic.ru

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